LAWSG160 Principles of Civil Justice
|LAWSG160: PRINCIPLES OF CIVIL JUSTICE|
|Credit value:||30 credits (15 ECTS, 300 learning hours)|
|Teaching Delivery:||20 x 2-hour weekly seminars, 10 seminars per term, Term One and Two|
|Who may enrol:||LLM students only|
|Must not be taken with:||None|
|Qualifying module for:||LLM in Litigation and Dispute Resolution|
|Practice Assessment:||Opportunity for feedback on one optional practice essay per term (two in total)|
|Final Assessment:||One 3-hour unseen written examination (100%)|
An effective civil justice system is the means by which substantive legal rights are elaborated, vindicated and enforced. Over the last twenty years such systems have been subject to significant reform across the world; reform that has attempted to ensure that they are more effective and efficient. This module provides a detailed study of the fundamental principles that underpin the structure and operation of those systems. As such it critically examines principles of due process, for instance, the right to be heard, to equality of arms, to open justice common, common to all civil justice systems and contemporary challenges to them. It provides an in-depth analysis of overarching theories of procedural justice and recent reforms that have seen the introduction, in differing forms, of a new theory of procedural justice based on proportionality across common law jurisdictions. It then focuses on the procedural principles and contemporary discussions concerning specific procedural processes, and challenges for and developments in civil justice.
The module approaches the subject primarily through an examination of the English and Welsh civil justice system, and the manner in which principle has shaped it and been the subject of reform. It does so however through a consideration of comparative study, particularly taking account of the ALIUNIDROIT Principles, common law jurisprudence from, for instance, Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the United States of America. Each year a special lecture is given by a leading member of the judiciary.
The course is divided into five substantive parts. The first part provides students with an in-depth analysis of general, theoretical principles of procedural justice. Due process is considered with reference to common law jurisprudence, the European Convention on Human Rights and the ALIUNIDROIT Transnational Principles. Having done so, three differing conceptions of the civil justice system’s aim are considered: first, the commitment to securing justice on the merits, which has, historically, been the predominant organising principle of civil justice; secondly, Bentham’s theory of judicial procedure, which understands the search for justice on the merits as subordinate to wider policy considerations; and, finally, the turn towards proportionality as a fundamental procedural principle, and its different meanings across different jurisdictions.
The second part of the course examines the role and underpinnings of discrete aspects of the civil justice process and the way in which they have been shaped by and are being revised by the fundamental conceptions discussed in part one of the course. The convergence in approaches across common law and civilian justice systems is considered. Part three focuses on the role and impact of litigation costs both in terms of the operation of the civil justice system and procedural reform. It also examines recent reforms in litigation funding: the development of contingency and third party funding and the role it plays as a replacement for state-funded legal aid.
The fourth part of the course examines the future of civil justice. It looks at responses to the growth of litigants-in-person and the way in which, and how, that is reshaping the adversarial process through the introduction of a more investigative and online approach to the delivery of civil justice by common law courts. It then looks at the role that ADR plays and its possible co-option as a vehicle for the privatisation of the civil justice system.
The final part of the course provides an opportunity to revise important elements of the course and exam guidance.
General Principles of Civil Justice
Principles of Civil Dispute Resolution
Costs and Funding
The Future of Civil Justice
Module reading lists and other module materials will be provided via online module pages, available at the beginning of term once students have enrolled.